This study investigates the influence of processing parameters of infrared-assisted automated fiber placement (AFP) on the mechanical and thermal properties of carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites. In particular, two processing parameters—compaction force and tool temperature—with two compaction roller types were analyzed based on the design of experiments with four distinct process conditions. Accordingly, we conducted experiments to determine the optimum process parameters and maximize the bending and bonding strengths. For each condition, the flexural and lap-shear strength (LSS) analyses along with thermal analysis were performed to investigate the impact of the process parameters and conditions. Moreover, the pressure films were used to examine the pressure distribution of the compaction roller. The failure modes of the LSS and flexural samples were observed under scanning electron microscopy and visual inspection. The correlation between the process parameters and the thermal and mechanical properties was derived for various parametric combinations. Overall, the results revealed that a higher tool temperature significantly increased the flexural strength of the AFP-fabricated composites. The samples fabricated with the elastomeric compaction roller displayed a higher degree of crystallinity with higher LSS and flexural strength compared to those fabricated with a steel compaction roller. This study provides comprehensive insights into the manufacturing and mechanical performance of carbon fiber/polyamide 6 composites with infrared-assisted AFP.